Anatomy, Histology, and Cell Biology PreTest Self-Assessment by Robert Klein, George Enders

By Robert Klein, George Enders

This distinctive try prep advisor permits you to attempt your wisdom of crucial anatomy, histology and cellphone biology strategies for the USMLE Step 1; perform with 500 USMLE Step 1-style questions with referenced solutions; assessment motives for correct and flawed answers;and construct self belief, talents, and information.

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Extra info for Anatomy, Histology, and Cell Biology PreTest Self-Assessment and Review, Third Edition (PreTest Basic Science)

Sample text

The gland is covered by a connective tissue capsule and divided into a cortex containing steroid-producing cells with prominent lipid droplets and a medulla containing chromaffin cells that secrete catecholamines and neuropeptides. There are a number of adrenal hormonal disorders. Congenital virilizing adrenal hyperplasia results from the deficiency of an enzyme required for cortisol production. The result is elevated ACTH and secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone from the fetal cortex causing masculinization (virilizing) of the female genitalia.

Nuclear and mitochondrial-sorting signals (positively charged amino acid sequences) are recognized by those organelles. Endocytosis involves transport from the cell membrane to lysosomes using endosome intermediates. The process originates with a clathrincoated pit that invaginates to form a coated vesicle that fuses with an endosome. , uptake of cholesterol). Endosomes subsequently fuse with lysosomes. Internalized receptor/ligand complexes may be conserved, degraded, or recycled. EPITHELIUM Epithelial cells line the free external and internal surfaces of the body.

Calcitonin opposes the actions of PTH, but plays a lesser role overall. Bone is highly vascular and mineralized with hydroxyapatite. In contrast, the three types of cartilage are avascular and contain chondrocytes that 22 Anatomy, Histology, and Cell Biology synthesize fibers and ground substance. Hyaline cartilage covers articular surfaces and forms the cartilage model in long bone development. Elastic cartilage is found in the pinna of the ear and in the epiglotlis, while fibrocartilage is an intermediate form found in the intervertebral disc, pubic symphysis, and connecting tendon and bone.

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