Agricultural and Horticultural Engineering. Principles, by Clifford J. Studman

By Clifford J. Studman

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They are needed so that the data can be recorded in the field book without mistakes. 115 m C (black) a. Back-sight The first shot taken after the level is set up in a new position is always a back-sight. At the start the back-sight will be to the bench­ mark. When the level is shifted the first shot will be back to the last measured position of the staff. This establishes a new reference for the next shots. 000 m b. Fore-sight A fore-sight is the last reading taken before the instrument is moved to a new position.

1 above). 13) and hold it upright and still while the surveyor takes the reading. 9 another reading. This time the value is an intermediate sight and is entered in the IS column. The rise or fall should then be calculated and entered. If the reading goes up then the ground has FALLEN; if the reading is less the ground has RISEN. 2). The reduced level is then calculated immediately, and written in the column. Any remarks are added (eg, point 1, BM etc). 2). This procedure is repeated until all the points have been surveyed, or until it is necessary to shift the instrument in order to obtain further measurements.

Several cameras are used to take each set of photographs at the same moment in time and space. The negatives are developed and a print is produced from the negatives using colour sensitive photographic paper, but for each negative a different colour light is used to expose the print. In this way a coloured image is produced with colours which are not related to reality but which represent the intensity of light seen by the camera in specific wavebands. It is thus possible, for example, to produce a false colour image which indicates the infra-red radiation patterns.

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